by Andrew Saunders – May 2015

The large, majestic Longleaf Pine trees in our 35-acre restoration preserve are 80 to 120 years old. But the Longleaf Pine tree is only a part of the story of a Longleaf Forest. The Longleaf Forest is a giant living thing from the ground into the sky with elaborate connections between arrays of plants and animals. The Longleaf Forest is a distinct and beautiful ecosystem. As slanting sunlight is allowed onto the forest floor by the unique, high-canopy architecture of Longleaf, understory grasses and flowers abound-bird life and ground-bound critters abound.

In 2003, when MBG began systematic restoration management of our preserve, the woods were choked with hardwood thicket throughout the understory. If we had not undertaken our restoration work, the existing pine trees would have survived for decades more, but they would have no young–no regeneration. The forest we see today would convert to an Oak thicket, over time, and the entire Longleaf ecosystem would disappear.

Fire is the critical, nurturing element for the continuance of Longleaf, and fire is what we have provided in a systematic, managed regime. Periodic fire brings health and life to the Longleaf in dramatic ways. That is, the occasion of fire in a woodland is dramatic, and the resulting biodiversity and natural beauty of the woodland is dramatic.

Clearly, there are many moving parts to the introduction of fire in an urban setting such as ours. It is not commonly done. But we have established a format over years emphasizing public safety and engendering public support. Fire is primary and essential, but it does not stand alone. Forest management means selective brush-cutting, selective herbicide applications, and continuous programs for stunting the advance of invasive species.

Below is a field map of our Longleaf Forest. The designated areas are individual management areas, subject to different management strategies according to their condition. Our long-term goal is to be able to manage the entire woodland by the application of controlled fire. What fun!

Many of you know that our wonderful “Garden of Excellence”, as named by the International Camellia Society, the WinterGarden, is dedicated to Kosaku Sawada. But apart from knowing that he established Overlook Nurseries here in Mobile, and admiring his beautiful camellia hybrids, few know his history.

Bill Ray has graciously given his permission to post his history of Kosaku Sawada and his family. Bill tells of K. Sawada’s birth in 1882 in Japan, through the problems of World War II as a Japanese immigrant, with a rare and fascinating view of the family life of a great plantsman, who has left a great legacy to his family and to us all on his death in 1968.

Bill has asked us to describe him just as living in Florala, and a supporter of the Mobile Botanical Gardens – but we came across this description of him, “Bill Ray is the Charles Dickens and Mark Twain of the Camellia World all rolled up into one”, and he is a long-time contributing writer to the American Camellia Journal.

He acknowledges the generous help and support of George and Carole Sawada, and other family members for memories and photos. And points out that he considers K. Sawada to be a “Plantsman”, a far higher accolade than “hybridizer” as it was edited in some printed versions.

Below is Bill’s original article. We also attach a PDF version from the old Southeastern Camellia News, published several years ago, which includes photographs furnished by the Sawada Family. Kosaku Sawada, American – an article by Bill Ray (will open in a new tab)

Kosaku Sawada, American by Bill Ray


The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, also known as the ‘St. Louis Worlds Fair of 1904’ was, by all accounts a most lavish and elaborate celebration of the exuberance of Americans and the turn of the last century. We know this today both through conventional history, but primarily through history as presented through the eyes of Hollywood and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. After all, in the movies, the fair gave Judy Garland a couple of memorable songs to sing.

Forgotten today in those memories of over a century ago, are those exhibitions and displays built by other nations to advertise their presence at this most American of celebrations.

For our purposes though, we are concerned with a Mr. Mykawa who served as an official representative of the government of Japan at the fair. During the fair, Mr. Mykawa became interested in promoting a rice farming venture around Houston, Texas. After his duties at the fair were ended, Mr. Mykawa returned to Japan to recruit a group of people to help with his rice farming plans.

Mr. Mykawa returned to America with four young men to help him. Very shortly, misfortune befell the venture and Mr. Mykawa was killed in a farming accident. The rice farming venture failed shortly thereafter.

One of these four young men was Kosaku Sawada. He, along with several of his young companions operated the Alvin-Japanese Nursery in Alvin, Texas for a time. The main operation of the Alvin-Japanese Nursery was to import citrus trees and plant orchards in southeast Texas. Along with Satsuma oranges, other plants were imported, including Camellia japonica.


After a few years, it became apparent that the more active growth in the citrus industry was eastward—so K. Sawada moved to Grand Bay, Alabama. Then a move to the largest nearby city seemed appropriate. Thus in 1914, the nursery acquired some land overlooking the city of Mobile, Alabama. In 1918, all operations were moved to this new site and Overlook Nurseries was born.

The first camellias were propagated at Overlook Nurseries about 1915. As the demand for camellias was small, propagation was begun on a limited scale. Cuttings were obtained from plants in the Mobile area—plants which had been planted in the nineteenth century. As the twentieth century camellia popularity boom began, cuttings were obtained from fine varieties throughout the country.

This popularity mushroomed and during the period of 1945 to 1950 the nursery was listing three to four hundred varieties in the nursery catalog and growing up to one thousand varieties in the nursery.

In 1916, Kosaku Sawada had married Nobu Yoshioka. The future Mrs. Sawada had brought some 500 camellia seeds with her from Japan. These were planted in the Spring of 1917 and this was the first planting of seed by Overlook Nurseries. Not until 1929-30 were the blooms of the first ‘outstanding’ varieties seen. These from seeds planted in 1925. The determination of what was ‘outstanding’ was determined by K. Sawada.

Today, some are blessed with these first plants in their gardens. Plants with names like ‘Lurie’s Favorite’, ‘Queen Bessie’, ‘Mrs. K. Sawada’, ‘Imura’ and ‘K. Sawada’ are found in many an outstanding camellia garden.

What is thought to have been his crowning achievement as ‘Mr. Camellia’ came with the introduction in 1959 of ‘Sawada’s Dream’ the first camellia selected at Overlook from cross pollinated seedlings.

‘Sawada’s Dream’ was the camellia that K. Sawada had dreamed of, hoped for and aspired to create for it had everything that he wanted in a camellia (except for the strong fragrance that he had hoped to infuse). It was the color, the shape, the size, everything that matched his internal picture of perfection and he did not believe any camellia could be better. It took him 10 years to develop ‘Sawada’s Dream’

In addition to the Japonicas, K. Sawada introduced a number of sasanquas, among them, ‘Cleopatra’, ‘Brilliancy’ and ‘Gulf Glory’ .

K. Sawada was rightly known as a ‘plantsman’ for he lived plants. Azaleas, pyracantha, amaryllis, all were experimented with and new plants produced. When he found that the Japanese flowering cherry would not grow in the South because of the inadaptability of the root stock with which it had to be grafted, he finally succeeded in propagating it from cuttings and the Japanese Flowering cherry became a common and popular tree in the Southern garden.

He grew kale and cauliflower and Brussels sprouts when others only grew cabbage and turnips. He was constantly working for something new, something better.


Forgotten today are his articles for ACS yearbooks and magazines and his lectures. This normally quiet man could talk for hours about his camellias. He often said, “I wonder why everybody invites me to talk to their Club? Maybe, they want to hear my broken English and accent.” Hardly, people wanted to hear about Camellias, from one who lived, breathed and loved Camellias for so long—and had given them so many Camellias to love.

Today in the archives of the American Camellia Society at Massee Lane Gardens, there rest a number of water color paintings of camellias, painted by K. Sawada. Having no formal training as an artist, his works are all the more remarkable: in addition to the painting of the flower itself, he noted detailed descriptions of the flower as well as the leaves and plant. He also noted any other information that he had on the history of the variety.

To quote ACS historian, Forrest Latta, ‘they are unique in all the world’


The Sawada’s had four children who survived into adulthood: Tom, George, Lurie and Ben. Tom was born in 1918 and named for Thomas Jefferson, George was named for General and first President, George Washington. Ben, the youngest was born in 1930 and named for Benjamin Franklin and is today a retired Methodist minister. Nobu died shortly after giving birth to Ben and ‘Papa’ and oldest son, Tom, raised the three younger children.

George died in 1998 and Lurie in the year 2000. Tom died in September, 2004.

People in the local community sometimes asked K. Sawada why he didn’t settle on the West Coast of the United States where he could speak Japanese, read Japanese newspapers and magazines: his answer, always: if he had wanted to speak and read Japanese he would have remained in Japan. He was in America. He and his children would speak and read English. Tom, George and Ben were the most American names he could think of for his sons, names of American patriots and statesmen—for he wanted them to be AMERICAN. Lurie’s name is something of a family mystery, ‘Papa’ never shared why she was given that name.

George along with Bill Dodd and Tom Dodd, Jr. were one-half of the first horticulture class at Alabama Polytechnic Institute. After their time together at Auburn, the Dodd’s operated Dodd Nurseries for many years while the Sawada family continues to operate Overlook. Rather than competitors, the two families have remained, ‘friends in the same business’ for decades. After George Sawada’s death in 1998, the Dodd family presented a camellia named for ‘George Sawada’ at his memorial service.

The ‘present’ George Sawada, son of Tom Sawada, was very pleased that his beloved namesake uncle had been so honored by friends that he had treasured for so long.

Indeed the Sawada’s friendship with the Dodd family was not unique, K. Sawada seems to have made a habit of knowing his competitors on a first name basis. The stories are told of young people beginning small nurseries in the area being visited, unexpectedly and unannounced, by the then successful K. Sawada and being presented with specimens of Overlook plants for beginning nursery stock for their new business. Help, advice, and support were freely given.


At the beginning of WWII, this generosity was repaid wonderfully by local nurserymen. There were two ‘Japanese’ named nurseries in the Mobile area: Overlook Nurseries and Kiyono nurseries. T. Kiyono and his camellias had even been the subject of a Life magazine article in March of 1939.

Nevertheless, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, T. Kiyono’s nursery was seized and sold at auction by the government. Kiyono’s case was not helped by his being in Japan at the time of the attack.

Overlook was scheduled to be seized and sold, but the nurserymen of the surrounding area went as a group to the authorities and pled K. Sawada and his families’ case. K. Sawada was an American, there were few in that room that had not known his friendship and generosity. There was a heated, indeed, a passionate discussion with the authorities. The local nurserymen argued that K. Sawada was one of THEM—one of their OWN.

The Sawada family was allowed to keep Overlook.

Local legend has it that the pleasant, soft-spoken, man of few words, K. Sawada was moved to tears by the actions and love of his friends, his ‘competitors’ and their families.

Indeed, son Tom was in the US Army when war broke out. He was asked to be a undercover operative. He responded that he would do anything he could to serve his country, but were they aware he did not speak Japanese?

The idea was dropped and though Tom did know some words and phrases, he never learned to speak Japanese, fluently.

Son George suffered from asthma and was ineligible for overseas military service, he was, however, active in the Coast Guard and in defense work at home.

April 15, 2008 marks 40 years since the death of Kosaku Sawada, ‘Mr. Camellia’. Born October 21, 1882 in Osaka, Japan, he, by his own design and determination, became as American as baseball, hot dogs, apple pie…….and Camellias.

So today, amid talk of politically correct ‘cultural diversity’ and ‘maintaining ethnic heritage’ let us remember a gentle man and his family who have given us so much beauty to enjoy and who proudly became Americans to do so.

These are some photos of Kosaku Sawada from Bill Ray’s article, and of some of his named camellias that have been posted on our Instagram account.

Click on the photo to view as a slide show with larger photos and full captions.
Follow @mobilebotanicalgardens on Instagram and see more photos!

Kosaku Sawada 1882-1968 from Japan to Mobile, AL. Our #Wintergarden is dedicated to his memory #hybridizer #camellias #planthistory Photo courtesy of his family and Bill Ray who has generously let us reprint his article on our #website #mbghist1 #mbgksawada1 ...

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#photo of Kosaku Sawada at entrance to #WinterGarden today #mobilebotanicalgardens #visit our #website for a great article about him #mbgwg1 #mbgksawada1 #mbgscene ...

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Kosaku Sawada 1882-1968 with #camellia #hybrids at Overlook Nurseries in Mobile, established in 1918. Seeds from Japan brought over as a "dowry" by his wife when they married in 1916, were planted at Overlook #mbghist1 #mbgksawada1 #planthistory ...

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Camellia fraterna hybrid 'Tiny Princess' by Kosaku Sawada 1962. Popular in Australia & New Zealand. Fragrant pink flowers fall to the ground "all face-up". Thanks to Bobby Green of Green Nuseries for info & use of photo #mobilebotanicalgardens #planthistory #mbghist1 #mbgksawada1 ...

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Camellia japonica 'Queen Bessie' by Kosaku Sawada 1934. Cold hardy #camellia large semi-double white blooms with a hint of blush. #planthistory #mobilebotanicalgardens #mbghist1 #mbgksawada1 Once again, thanks to Bobby Green for the use of his photo! (Can you tell I'm doing some history research😉 today?) ...

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The Koi have Names!

Thanks to everybody who submitted entries! With only a little bit of pouting, the Koi Name Selection Committee, have selected the winners of our contest!

A Big Drum Roll and an Official Photo of the Koi, goes to:

Karen Rhea White of Fairhope for submitting Sunny and Rascal

Marilyn Way of Mobile for submitting Moonbeam, Tiger Boi and Lei Lei

And once again, many thanks to the Kahkola’s who arranged the generous donation and transportation of the Koi! For the full Interstate Story of how we got the Koi please see A Fish Tale…OOPS…Tale

Big Mama for Koi name post

Big Mama – our original koi

This is Big Mama! Our Original Lonely and Only Koi!
She seems very happy to have friends to share her Pond!

Sunny for koi name post


Meet SUNNY – short for Sunburst.

She is female and 3 years old. She has a lot of white on her side, and has an orange nose. She was born in Florida

Rascal for Koi Name post


Meet RASCAL – up to mischief from the beginning when she got caught up in the pond skimmer, almost on arrival. She is Sunny’s sister and 3 years old from Florida. She is mostly orange with black splotches, and has a black nose. We originally misidentified her as a male, so ‘Trouble’ is probably her middle name!

Moonbeam for koi name post


Meet MOONBEAM – so named because he glows like a moonbeam, with the orange dot on his tail looking like the blazing orange orb of the setting sun. He was a little bit shy when he first arrived, because he came from a different pond than the others, but he’s now enjoying the company!

Tiger Boi for koi name post

Tiger Boi

Meet TIGER BOI – his markings gave him the Tiger, and the Boi is a combination of Boy and Koi! He is a male and is 5 years old. He is the ‘flashiest’ fish in the pond. He has perfect markings and coloration, but has a dent in his gill which stops him from being a show fish.

Lei Lei for koi name post

Lei Lei

Meet LEI LEI She is a female and is 10 years old. She was born in Japan and then lived in Hawaii! A well-travelled fish! She is now the largest fish in the pond. She is orange and white.

Thunder for koi name post


THUNDER was named on the day he arrived! A little boy was visiting when the fish were being put in the pond. He crouched down to watch them all swimming. When his mom told him it was time to go, her said “That one is named Thunder and my name is Christopher” and left.

We would love to know how to find Christopher, so he can have an official photo of Thunder!

Thunder is male and about 9 years old. His pattern is (amazingly) not considered a color in the Koi World, but he glows almost irridescent! He was considered shy and stand-offish in the big pond where he lived, but seems to be very comfortable in his new home!

Way back in 2014, Kirsten and Mike Kraljevic volunteered to get the Koi Pond in our Founders Garden cleaned and cleared. In October they spent a weekend completing the installation of a new pump and skimmer system. Dr Jack DiPalma and his wife Ann funded the much needed components to make it all work. The result was a stunning waterfall, and a healthy pond!

Herding goldfish in 2014

Herding goldfish in 2014

Kirsten cleaning the koi pond in 2014

Kirsten cleaning the koi pond in 2014

Kirsten knee deep in the Koi Pond 2014

Kirsten knee deep in the Koi Pond 2014

Clean pond, working waterfall, and Big Mama in 2014

Clean pond, working waterfall, and Big Mama in 2014

Lonely Big Mama March 2015

Lonely Big Mama

And Big Mama! Our only and lonely Koi! Well, she had some small fry for companions, and was happy chasing them around the pond occasionally, but she was not just the Biggest Koi in the Pond – she was the only one!

As the story goes, Kirsten was working on, or more probably IN the Koi Pond, and got talking to a couple visiting the Gardens from out of town – Paul and Penny Kahkola from Tennessee. And it turns out that Paul’s brother and sister-in-law raise Koi.

So, in the weeks following, Paul and Penny in Greenback, Tennessee ask Sonja and Ken in Dunellon, Florida to donate koi to Big Mama’s Lonely Koi Pond in Mobile Alabama and Sonja and Ken generously agreed to donate SIX koi and sent us advance photos! Now, that’s fishnet-working at its best!

They arrived on Thursday afternoon (March 26th) and after a while floating around in travelling bags to get acclimated to the new water temperature, they were released to their new home!

Big Mama is overjoyed! Big Mama is no longer lonely! And the new Koi are ready to make a big splash with our visitors!

Our heartfelt thanks to Sonja and Ken Kahkola for the very generous donation and transportation of the Koi, and to Paul and Penny Kahkola for going out of their way to remember a chance meeting at the Mobile Botanical Gardens and make it all possible!

Bagged koi for donation post

Travelling Bagged Koi

Letting the Koi out of the BAgs!

Letting the Koi out of the Bags!

Happy  Koi for dnation post

Happy Koi!

Happy Big Mama for donation post

Happy Big Mama!

Very Happy Fish - not bubble bath - Koi spawning May 22!

Very Happy Fish – not bubble bath – Koi spawning May 22!